Visible-near Infrared (VIS-NIR) Spectroscopy as a Rapid Measurement Tool to Assess the Effect of Tillage on Oil Contaminated Sites
Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 135-143
Received: Sep. 22, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 26, 2019; Published: Nov. 7, 2019
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Authors
Douglas Reward Kokah, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK; National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
Fou Ayebatin, Center for Occupational Health and Safety, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Egai Ayibawari Obiene, Department of Geology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
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Abstract
This study assessed the potential of using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to determine the effect of tillage (ploughing) on oil-contaminated sites. Crude oil contaminated samples were collected from the Ikarama, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. 62 and 20 samples were collected from untilled and tilled (ploughed) sites, respectively. All samples were analysed in the laboratory with an Analytical Spectral Device spectrometer with a spectral range of 350 to 2500 nm. Principal component analysis was performed on the soil spectral data using chemometric. Sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction was also carried out followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis to validate the visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy sensitivity and ability to detect change due to hydrocarbons profile changes. 27% and 15% concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present in the untilled and tilled sites, respectively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis also showed that PAHs and allkanes concentrations in the untilled site ranged from 0.05 to 48.493 mg/kg and 0.07 to 528.147mg/kg, respectively. For the tilled (ploughed) site, the concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.04 to 0.742 mg/kg and 0.06 to 159.280mg/kg, respectively. In addition, non-metric Multidimensional scaling was carried out using Primer version 6 to investigate the statistical significance of the hydrocarbon profiles and concentrations of the samples. To minimise the extent of overlap of the samples, the 82 samples collected were reduced to 49 samples (43 untilled and 6 tilled). Results show that visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may be a valuable tool for grouping hydrocarbon contaminated soils into hydrocarbon content and concentrations.
Keywords
Visible-near Infrared Spectroscopy, Hydrocarbons-contaminated Soils, Tillage, Principal Component Analysis, Niger Delta
To cite this article
Douglas Reward Kokah, Fou Ayebatin, Egai Ayibawari Obiene, Visible-near Infrared (VIS-NIR) Spectroscopy as a Rapid Measurement Tool to Assess the Effect of Tillage on Oil Contaminated Sites, Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2019, pp. 135-143. doi: 10.11648/j.eas.20190406.11
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Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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