Invivo Anti Trypanosomal Activity of Aqueous Extractof Azadirachta indica Leaves on Trypanosoma brucei brucei Infected Mice
International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 13-17
Received: Oct. 30, 2017; Accepted: Nov. 17, 2017; Published: Feb. 2, 2018
Views 899      Downloads 27
Authors
Okoh Martina Enyanwu, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Obadiah Happiness Igwe, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Edoh Emmanuel, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem is known to possess high medicinal value. This study aimed at determining the in vivo anti trypanosomal potential of aqueous extracts of A. indica leaves on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. The toxicity of A. indica on mice was determined after which different extract doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally on the third day after infection, administration lasted for 7 days. The effects of the extract in trypanosome infected mice were observed for 15 days by monitoring the changes in packed cell volume (PCV), Parasitemia and weight of mice. Comparison was made to the positive control group treated with Diamineazine Aceturate and negative control-infected but not treated.The leaf extract of neem plant did not have acute toxicity on the uninfected animals, there was no significant effect observed in weight (Group 3 which was given 500mg/kg had a weight of 35g by day 7 while control had a weight of 35.2g) and PCV (Group 1; 100mg/kg, Day 7 had a PCV of 44, Group 3; 500mg/kg, 45 while control had a PCV of 45) (p>0.05). There was however a significant difference between the different extract doses and control with respect to parasitemia, (500mg/kg extract dose showed more anti trypanosomal potential compared to other doses). PCV (mice that were given 500mg/kg of extract dose recorded a higher PCV compared to lower doses) and weight of the mice; (p<0.05). Azadirachta indica extract possess anti trypanosomal potentials. It is therefore recommended that more research on ethno botanic medicine should be encouraged and treatment options employed in the treatment of neglected diseases.
Keywords
Azadirachta indica, African Trypanosomiasis, Nigeria
To cite this article
Okoh Martina Enyanwu, Obadiah Happiness Igwe, Edoh Emmanuel, Invivo Anti Trypanosomal Activity of Aqueous Extractof Azadirachta indica Leaves on Trypanosoma brucei brucei Infected Mice, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 13-17. doi: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20180301.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ene, A., Edeh, N., Bonny, C., Ojiako, O., Ujuwandi, C. andIgwe, C. (2013). Invivo Anti Trypanosomal Effect of Methanol and Aqueous Extract of Picrili manitida. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3:200-205.
[2]
Ogoti, P., Magiri, E., Auma, J., Gabriel, M., Imbuga M. and Murilla, G. (2009). Evaluation of Invivo Anti Trypanosomal Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 3(11):849-854.
[3]
Raphael, M., Bosire, O., Stephen, M., William, W., Ronald, G., Kilbagi, K. and Francis, N. (2009). Anti Trypanosomal Effect of Azadirachta indica on Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Infected mice. Eastern Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 14-29.
[4]
Maikai, V., Nok, J., Adaudi, A and Alawa, C. (2007). Invitro Anti Trypanosomal Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Stem Bark of Ximenia americanai on Trypanosoma congolense. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 3:2-7.
[5]
Nok, A., King, A., Ishaya, L., Samuel, A., Paul, C., Casmir, EandJames, K. (1993). Trypanocidal Potential of Azadirachta indica: In vivo Activity of Leaf Extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry Nutrition, 15:113-118.
[6]
Tagbato, S. and Townson, S. (2001). Anti Parasitic Properties of Medicinal Plants and Other Naturally Ocurring Products. Advanced Journal of Parasitology. 50:199-205.
[7]
Omoja, V., Anago, A., Obidik, I., Ihedioha, T., Umeakuana, P., Mhonga, L., Asuzu, U. and Anika, M. (2011). The Effect of Combination of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica and Diameazene Diacetuate in the Treatment of Experimental brucei brucei in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Medicine, 3(4):560-563.
[8]
Luckins A. G. (2002). Surra. Office International Epizootics (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals Pp 33.
[9]
Chem, J., Tipoe, G. and Liong, F. (2004). Green Tea Polyphenols Prevent Toxin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice by Down Regulating Inducible Nitric Oxide Derived Pro-Oxidants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80:742-751.
[10]
Ibrahim, M., Njoko, G. and Salau, B. (2008). In Vivo Activity of Stem Barkof Aqueous Extract of Khaya senegalensis against Trypanosoma brucei. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(5):661-663.
[11]
Mohammad, A. (2012). Antimicrobial Potential of Azadirachta indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(4):78-83.
[12]
Githua, M., Hassanali, A., Keriko, J., Kareru, P. Murilla, G., Ndungu, M. and Nyagah, G. (2011). Antitrypanosomal Tetra notriterpenoids from Toonaciliata roots. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2(7): 1042-1047.
[13]
Bulus, T., Ahmed, A. B., Aboi, T. Y. and Danbaki, D. A. (2016). Determination of IC50 and IC90 Values of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Achives of Clinical Microbiology, 7(3):1-5.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931