An Exploration of Strategies for Facilitating Graduates’ Transition to the World of Work: A Case of Technical, Vocational Education and Training Graduates in Uganda
International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research
Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 1-9
Received: Jan. 18, 2019;
Accepted: Feb. 20, 2019;
Published: Mar. 14, 2019
Views 10 Downloads 12
Denis Kintu, Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda
Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge, Department of Technology Education, University of Eldoret, Eldoret City, Kenya
Ahmed Ferej, Department of Technology Education, University of Eldoret, Eldoret City, Kenya
The major role of Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is to equip young persons with skills for the world of work. However, studies have shown that TVET graduates in Uganda experience difficulty in their transition to the world of work, implying major labor market entry problems. The study, we set out to identify different strategies for facilitating TVET graduates’ transition to the world of work in Uganda. A qualitative approach was used to collect data, analyze and present findings. Thirty respondents, comprising of employers of TVET graduates, trainers and officials from: skilling Uganda, Uganda employers’ union, Ministry of education officials, and TVET graduates in formal employment were randomly selected and interviewed. The various strategies identified were: use of employment agencies, income generating units at the institutions, institutional-industrial linkages, provision of start-up capital, tools and materials for self-employment, training with production and internship/ industrial attachments programs. It is recommended that an active labour market information system be established at TVET institutions to analyze, collect, evaluate and provide labour market information to identify evolving occupations, skills shortages and areas of skills oversupply and redundancy; that there should be an increase in apprenticeship programs and that TVET institutions adopt approaches such as case studies, project-based learning, real life problem-based learning, and teamwork learning activities.
Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge,
An Exploration of Strategies for Facilitating Graduates’ Transition to the World of Work: A Case of Technical, Vocational Education and Training Graduates in Uganda, International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-9.
Rogers M. & Creed P. (2000). School-to-Work Transition: From Theory to Practice, School of Applied Psychology. Griffith University - Gold Coast. Queensland, Australia 4217.
Peila-Shuster J. J (2016). Supporting Student Transitions: Integrating Life Design, Career Construction, Happenstance, and Hope. South African Journal of Higher Education Volume 30,| Number 3, 2016 pages 54‒67 eISSN 1753-5913 http://dx.doi.org/10.20853/30-3-633.
Hrabowski, F. A. 2015. The future of work: Preparing students for a changing world of work. Pacific Standard. http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/the-future-of-work-preparing-students-for-a-changing-world-of-work.
Chong, Y. S., & Ahmed, P. (2014). A phenomenology of university service quality experience: Uncovering the essence of meaning among business undergraduates in Malaysia. International Journal of Educational Management, 28, 36–52.
World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation. Washington, DC. www.unevoc.unesco.org/publications
EFA Global Monitoring Report (2012). Youth and Skills: Putting education to work UNESCO, 2012.
Bai, B. & Geng, X. (2014). Transferable skills in technical and vocational education and training (TVET): Policy and practice in China. www.tvet-online.asia Issue 3.
World Bank, (2008). Transitions to Working Life for Africa’s Youth: In Youth in Africa’s Labor Market Ed. Garcia, M & Fares, J, Chapter two. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433.
Oviawe, J. I., Uwameiye, R., Uddin, P. S. O. (2017). Bridging Skill Gap to Meet Technical, Vocational Education and Training School-Workplace Collaboration in the 21st Century. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2017, pp. 7-14. doi: 10.11648/j.ijvetr.20170301.12.
Lee, J. (2009). Partnerships with industry for efficient and effective implementation of TVET. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 17 (2), 39-56.
Atchoarena, D. & Delluc, M. (2001). Revisiting Technical and Vocational Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: An update on trends, innovations and challenges. A Report for the International Institute for Educational Planning for the World Bank. Washington, D. C.: World Bank.
Dasmani, A. (2011). Challenges facing technical institute graduates in practical skills acquisition in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12 (2), 67-77.
GoU: The Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training Act 2008.
MoES (2011). Skilling Uganda, BTVET Strategic Plan 2011-2020. Kampala: Ministry of Education and Sports.
Okinyal, H. (2012). Reforming the Business, Technical Vocational Education and Training (BTVET) sub-sector: Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects, A paper presented at the Uganda Vice Chancellors’ Forum (UVCF), November 2012, Kampala, Uganda.
MoFPED (2014) Uganda’s Employment Challenge: An Evaluation of government’s Strategy. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, November 2014.
Okello, B. (2011). The factors influencing the negative attitude towards Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in the post-colonial Uganda, PhD thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya.
Wood, J. C. M. (2008). The Impact of Globalization on Education Reform: A Case Study of Uganda. PhD thesis; University of Maryland, College Park, U.S.A.
Nalumansi, S. R, Mula-maige, S., Oluka, S, Rosch, G, & Moll D. (2003). Skilled manpower in Uganda: A study on the BTVET Report for European Union Ministry of Education and Sports.
UNESCO. (2007). Technical education, policy framework, innovative practices and international partnership. China: UNESCO.
Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary approaches to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197–261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Leung S. A. (2008). International Handbook of Career Guidance, J. A. Athanasou, R. Van Esbroeck (Eds.) Springer Science, Business Media B. V. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Duchscher J. E. B. (2009) Transition shock: the initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 65 (5), 1103–1113. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04898.
Mashigo A. C. L. (2014). Factors Influencing Work Readiness of Graduates: An Exploratory Study. Master’s Thesis Stellenbosch University.
Wood L. N, Psaros J, French E. & Lai J. W. M. (2015). Learning experiences for the transition to professional work, Cogent Business & Management (2015), 2: 1042099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2015.1042099
Quintini G. and T. Manfredi (2009), “Going Separate Ways? School-To-Work Transition in The United States and Europe”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 90, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jzbb2t1rcwc-en.
OECD (2010), Learning for Jobs, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/978926 4087460-en.
Harvey, L., Locke, W. and Morey, A., 2002, Enhancing Employability, Recognising Diversity: Making links between higher education and the world of work. London, Universities. http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/bookshop/downloads/employability.pdf
Kombo, D. K, & Tromp, D. L. A. (2006). Proposal and thesis writing. An introduction. Pauline publication, Nairobi.
Cohen, L., & Manion, L. (1994). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge.
Kiplagat H, Khamasi J. W, & Karei R. (2016). Students’ Experience of Industrial Attachment: A Case of a Public University Journal of African Studies in Educational Management and Leadership Vol: 7 No: 1, August 2016, 82-97.
Matamande W, Nyikahadzoi L, Taderera E. (2013). An investigation of the effectiveness of work related learning: A case of the industrial attachment program offered by the faculty of commerce, University of Zimbabwe. Ever – Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 2013.
Julius Mucunguzi, group whatsapp message 2018.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) (2008). The Role of TVET Providers in Training for Employees. APEC Forum on Human Resources Development. 19th-21st November, Chiba-Japan.
Murage S., M. & Onyuma S., O. (2015). Analysis of Financial Performance of Income Generating Activities in Public Higher Learning Institutions: Experience from Egerton University, Kenya. Research journal of finance and accounting. Vol. 6 No. 7.
Tsuma A., N. & Mugambi M., F. (2014). Factors Influencing Performance of Income Generating Units in Public Universities. European Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 6, No. 10, 2014.
Government of Kenya (1999). Koech Commission Report and Recommendations – Koech Report. Nairobi, Kenya.
Raihan, Dr. (2014). Collaboration between TVET Institutions and Industries in Bangladesh to Enhance Employability Skills. 2. 50-55. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-2, Issue-10, October 2014.
Government of Bhutan (2015). A focus on TVET & Labour Market Dynamics the ministry of labour and human resource. Thimphu-Bhutan.
UNESCO-UNEVOC (2014). Vocational pedagogy, what it is, why it matters and how to put it into practice. Report on the UNESCO-UNEVOC virtual conference: 12 to 26 May 2014, UNEVOC e-Forum. Bonn, German.
Biseruka, D. (2010). How do Young People in Rwanda seek Self-Employment in a Tight Labour Market: A Case Study of GASABO District in Kigali-City. Erasmus University thesis repository.
Agaba, V. (2017, June 05). Education ministry to establish skills fund. New Vision newspaper, Kampala, Uganda.
Adjei, N. A. K. (2013). Evaluation of the Industrial Attachment Programme in Selected Ghanaian Public Polytechnics. PhD Thesis, University of Cape Coast.