Prevalence of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) Among Primary School Students in the Meshkin Shahr of Ardabil Province
American Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages: 94-99
Received: Aug. 20, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 5, 2018;
Published: Nov. 27, 2018
Views 910 Downloads 100
Abbasgholizadeh Nategh, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Moradi-Asl Eslam, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Adham Davoud, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Soudi Roghayeh, Experts of Meshkin Shahr Health Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Ganji Akbar, Experts of Meshkin Shahr Health Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Brije Hassan, Experts of Meshkin Shahr Health Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Salehzade Mehdi, Experts of Meshkin Shahr Health Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
Head lice infestation is so common in all parts of the world such as Iran especially in places with high population with poverty and lack of observing personal health principles. The maximum prevalence of louse infestation in children was observed in elementary school. Over prevalence of infestation in this age group and its relationship with education system and thus its generalization to the total population was the main reason of selecting this age group for the present study. This study was descriptive-analytical which aimed to determine the prevalence of head lice in elementary schools students of Meshkin Shahr city in Ardebil province in academic year 2015-2016. 1950 students were selected from 20 schools. For data analysis, the variables were analyzed as multivariate by chi-square test. In general, 1950 students were selected from 20 schools from which 200 students (10.25%) were infested to head lice. From 200 infested students (61%) were city and 78 students (39%) were from village. The ratio of the students in classes with more than 20 students was two times the others and the ratio of the students that studied in the schools with more than 100 students was three times the other schools. The difference between both groups was significant in terms of Pediculosis infestation. (P<0.01). It can be concluded that a set of important factors like crowdedness of students in classroom and school, high population of family, low level of parents’ education were the main reasons of louse infestation and its increase in the current societies.
Prevalence of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) Among Primary School Students in the Meshkin Shahr of Ardabil Province, American Journal of Pediatrics.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2018, pp. 94-99.
Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Fomite transmission in head lice. J American Aca Der. 2007; 56: 1044-7.
Mimouni D, Ankol OE, Gdalevich M, et al. Seasonality trends of Pediculosis capitis and Phthirus pubis in a young adult population: follow-up of 20 years. J Eur Aca Derm Ven. 2002; 16: 257-9.
Zaim M, Rashti SM, Ibrahim S. A Guide to Medical Entomology. Second edition. Tehran: Tehran University publisher. 1998:462.
Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Department of Health. Pediculosis management guideline. Tehran: Disease Management Center. 2007.
Monsen KA, Keller LO. A population-based approach to pediculosis management. Pub Health Nurs. 2002; 19: 201-8.
Manrique-Saide P, Pavia-Ruz N, Rodriguez-Buenfil JC, et al. Prevalence of Pediculosis capitis in children from a rural school in Yucatan, Mexico. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo.2011; 53: 325-7.
AlBashtawy M, Hasna F. Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J.2012; 18: 43-8.
Govere JM, Speare R, Durrheim DN. The prevalence of pediculosis in rural South African schoolchildren: research in action. South Afric J Sci. 2003; 99: 21-3.
Rassami W, Soonwera M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2: 901-4.
Etim SE, Ohioma ME, Okon OE, Akpan PA. Pediculosis among primary school children in Calabar, Nigeria and implications for control. Sci Res Ess. 2012; 7: 4071-5.
Downs AM, Stafford KA, Stewart GH, Coles GC. Factors that may be influencing the prevalence of head lice in British school children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000; 17: 72-4.
Atayi B, Sadri Gh. Survey of pediculosis in Joy Abad region. Proceedings of the 8th Congress Infectious and Tropical Diseases; 2001 Jan 14-18; Tehran, Iran; 2001.
Motevalli Haghi SF, Rafinejad J, Hosseni M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Primary-School Children of Sari, Mazandaran Province, in 2012-2013, Health hyg J.2014,4:339-348.
Rafinejad J, Norolahi A, Javadiyan E, et al. Epidemiology of head lice and factors that affect the city Amlash in the elementary school, Gilan province[2003-2004], Iran J Epidem. 2006,1:51-63.
Moradi AR. Zahirnia AH. Alipour AM. Eskandari Z. The Prevalence of Pediculosis capitis in Primary School Students in Bahar, Hamadan Province, Iran. J Res Health Sci,.2009; 9: 45-49.
Chunge RN, Scott FE, Underwood JE. A review of the epidemiology, Public Health Importance, treatment and control of head lice. Canadian J Public Heal. 1991; 82: 196-99.
Chunge RN, Scott FR, Underwood JE, Zavarella KJ. A Polit Study to investigate transmission of haed lice. Canadian J Public Heal. 1991; 82:207-08.
Defelice J, Rumsfield J, Brenstien E, Roshal JY. Clinical evaluation of an after Padiculicide nit removal system. Inte J Derma.1989; 28:468-70.
Chosidaw O, Brue C. Controlled study of Malathion and d-Phenothrin lotion for Pediculus humanus var Capitis- infested school children. The lancet.1994; 344: 1724-27.
Chunge RN. A studay of head lice among Primary school children, in Kenya. Trans. Roy. Soc. TroP. Med. Hyg 1986; 80: 42-46.
The Statistical Yearbook the country. Tehran: Iran Statistics Center Press, 1385:280.
Moradiasl E, Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, et al. The Relationship between Climatic Factors and the Prevalence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North West of Iran. Inte J Pedia.2018;6:7169-78.
Moradi-Asl E, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Rassi Y, et al. Situational Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Most Important Endemic Area of the Disease in Iran. J Arthropod-borne dis. 2017;11:482.
Dehghanzadeh R, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, S Salimian SH, et al. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran, Parasitol Res.2015; 114:4295–4303.
Edalatkhah H, Arshi SH, Sadeghi H, Sepehram V, et al. The prevalence of pediculosis in students boarding schools in Ardabil. J Ardabil Uni Med Sci.2003;2:36-45.
Afshari A, Gholami M, Hagh- verdi T, et al. Study of Prevalence of Head Lice Infestation in female Students in Primary Schools in Robat Karim County During 2008-2009 years. J Health faculty Yazd.2013;2:102-112.
Doroodgar A, Sadr F, Doroodgar M, Doroodgar M, Sayyah M. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children. Asian Pac J Trop Dis.2014; 4: 25-29.
Salehi Sh, Ban M, Motaghi M. A Study of Head Lice Infestation [Pediculosis Capitis] among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012. Int J Comm Based Nurs Mid. 2014; 2:196-200.
Noori A, Ghorban Pour M, Adib M, et al. Head lice infestation [Pediculosis] and its associated factors in the rural school students of Kalaleh, in the academic year 1392-93. Hakim Jorjani J. 2015; 2: 56-60.
Motevalli Haghi SF, Rafinejad J, Hosseni M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Primary-School Children of Sari, Mazandaran Province, in 2012-2013. Health Hyg J.2014,4:339-348.
Mohammadi-Azni S. Prevalence of head lice at the primary schools in Damghan. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2014; 16: 47-49.
Buczek A, Markowska-Gosik D, Widomska D, Monika Kawa L. Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of eastern Poland. Eur J Epidem.2004;19: 491–495.
Saghafipour A, Akbari A, Noruzi M, Khajat P, et al. The Epidemiology of Pediculusis Humanus Capitis Infestation and Effective Factors in Elementary Schools of Qom Province Girls 2010. Qom Univ MedSci J. 2012;6:125-129.
Motevalli Haghi F, Golchin M, Yousefi M, et al. Prevalence of Pediculosis and Associated Risk Factors in the Girls Primary School in Azadshahr City, Golestan Province, 2012-2013. Iranian J Health Sci.2014; 2: 63-68.
Wafa A. I. AL-Megrin, Assessment of the Prevalence of Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Res J Envir Sci.2015; 9: 193-199.
Farzinnia B, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Rais karami SR, Jafari T. Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis in girls' primary school students in Qom. Hormozgan Med J.2004;8:103-108.
Yousefi S, Shamsipoor F, Salim Abadi Y. Epidemiological Study of Head Louse [Pediculus humanus capitis] Infestation Among Primary School Students in Rural Areas of Sirjan County, South of Iran, Thrita J Med Sci.2012;1:53-56.
Hazrati Tappeh K, Chavshin AR, Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo H, et al. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 2012, 1: 79–85
Shayeghi M, A Paksa, Y Salim abadi, et al. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary School Pupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Iranian J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 2010, 4: 42–46.
Rafinejad J, Norolahi A, Javadiyan E, et al. Epidemiology of head lice and factors that affect the city Amlash in the elementary school, Gilan province[2003-2004]. Iranian J Epidem; 2006, 1:51-63.
Moradiasl E, Habibzadeh S, Rafinejad J, et al. Risk Factors Associated with Head lice [Pediculosis] Infestation among Elementary School Students in Meshkinshahr County, North West of Iran. Int J Ped. 2018;6:7383-92.